A comparative grammar of the Dravidian languages by Michail S. Andronov

By Michail S. Andronov

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Indonesian /a/ is // in Madurese. Due to the restriction on schwa, this occurs only in closed syllables. (11) Madurese [sənnə] [maləm] [kərrəp] [takəp] Indonesian [səna] [malam] [kərap] [tangkap] ‘happy’ ‘night’ ‘often’ ‘catch’ The words ‘happy’ and ‘often’ illustrate an alternative to the /ə/ ~ /a/ correspondence. Rather than a phonemic /a/ where Indonesian has schwa in an open syllable, the onset of the following syllable is geminated, creating the proper environment for Madurese /ə/. 3. 13 Syllables can, however, take any of the following forms.

31 By and large, roots with an initial aspirated or voiced consonant tend to take the aactor voice prefix rather than the nasal, a point noted by Stevens (1968) and amply documented there. However, speakers of the Western dialect have a tendency to use the nasal prefix somewhat more liberally, and in those cases the homorganic nasal replaces the initial consonant of the root. Morphophonemic processes 47 (59) surface root pɔɔl pɤkta bɤca ɔlɛs uu ṭɔkṭɔk ḍɤpa sənnə cant.

1. Aspiration is discussed in section 6. 16 Chapter 2 Phonology /ɲ/ voiced palatal nasal [ɲ] in syllable-initial position, does not occur in syllable-final position (except geminates) [ɲaman] ‘delicious’ [taɲa] ‘ask’ // voiced velar nasal [] in syllable-initial and syllable-final position [ara] ‘possible’ [aɛs] ‘cry’ [sənnə] ‘happy’ [sɛkɔ] ‘I’ /s/ voiceless alveolar fricative [s] in syllable-initial and syllable-final position [sakɛ] ‘sick’ [sampɛ] ‘until’ [alas] ‘forest’ [maskɛ] ‘although’ /r/ voiced alveolar trill [r] in syllable-initial and syllable-final position [raɤ] ‘large’ [sɔra] ‘letter’ [kapɤr] ‘news’ [kəras] ‘paper’ /l/ voiced alveolar lateral approximant [l] in syllable-initial and syllable-final position [lɛɛr] ‘neck’ [alas] ‘forest’ [bɤnal] ‘pillow’ [unɛl] ‘skilled’ The glides [j] and [w] have a special status.

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