By Michail S. Andronov
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Additional resources for A comparative grammar of the Dravidian languages
Indonesian /a/ is // in Madurese. Due to the restriction on schwa, this occurs only in closed syllables. (11) Madurese [sənnə] [maləm] [kərrəp] [takəp] Indonesian [səna] [malam] [kərap] [tangkap] ‘happy’ ‘night’ ‘often’ ‘catch’ The words ‘happy’ and ‘often’ illustrate an alternative to the /ə/ ~ /a/ correspondence. Rather than a phonemic /a/ where Indonesian has schwa in an open syllable, the onset of the following syllable is geminated, creating the proper environment for Madurese /ə/. 3. 13 Syllables can, however, take any of the following forms.
31 By and large, roots with an initial aspirated or voiced consonant tend to take the aactor voice prefix rather than the nasal, a point noted by Stevens (1968) and amply documented there. However, speakers of the Western dialect have a tendency to use the nasal prefix somewhat more liberally, and in those cases the homorganic nasal replaces the initial consonant of the root. Morphophonemic processes 47 (59) surface root pɔɔl pɤkta bɤca ɔlɛs uu ṭɔkṭɔk ḍɤpa sənnə cant.
1. Aspiration is discussed in section 6. 16 Chapter 2 Phonology /ɲ/ voiced palatal nasal [ɲ] in syllable-initial position, does not occur in syllable-final position (except geminates) [ɲaman] ‘delicious’ [taɲa] ‘ask’ // voiced velar nasal  in syllable-initial and syllable-final position [ara] ‘possible’ [aɛs] ‘cry’ [sənnə] ‘happy’ [sɛkɔ] ‘I’ /s/ voiceless alveolar fricative [s] in syllable-initial and syllable-final position [sakɛ] ‘sick’ [sampɛ] ‘until’ [alas] ‘forest’ [maskɛ] ‘although’ /r/ voiced alveolar trill [r] in syllable-initial and syllable-final position [raɤ] ‘large’ [sɔra] ‘letter’ [kapɤr] ‘news’ [kəras] ‘paper’ /l/ voiced alveolar lateral approximant [l] in syllable-initial and syllable-final position [lɛɛr] ‘neck’ [alas] ‘forest’ [bɤnal] ‘pillow’ [unɛl] ‘skilled’ The glides [j] and [w] have a special status.