A Reader on the Sanskrit Grammarians by J F. Staal

By J F. Staal

The achievements of Pānini and the Indian grammarians, starting approximately 2500 years in the past, have by no means been totally favored through Western students -- in part a result of nice technical problems provided through such an inquiry, and partially simply because suitable educational articles were limited to imprecise and inaccessible publications.

This e-book makes to be had to linguists and Sanskritists a set of an important articles at the Sanskrit grammarians, and offers a hooked up old define in their actions. It covers reports and fragments starting from early 7th-century debts of the grammarians -- recorded through Buddhist pilgrims from China and Tibet, by way of Muslim tourists from the close to East, and via Christian missionaries -- to a couple of the simplest articles that experience seemed over the past century and a half.

Chapters within the e-book conceal the basis of Sanskrit reviews within the West laid by means of British students operating in India and together with the unique and exact details supplied by way of Henry Thomas Colebrooke; the linguistic reviews of Pānini by means of von Schlegel and von Humboldt; the paintings of Bhandarkar and of Kielhorn; William Dwight Whitney's low overview of the "native" grammarians; and the philological paintings of recent Western, Indian, and eastern scholars.

The editor observes that fabrics within the Reader demonstrate difficulties tackled via the Sanskrit grammarians which heavily parallel advancements in modern linguistics. He has supplied old and linguistic remark and bibliographic info within the introductions and notes that accompany each one choice. Articles are of their unique English, German, and French. Texts or passages in chinese language, Tibetan, Arabic, Sanskrit, Latin, and Greek have, for the main half, been translated into English, and all Sanskrit passages were translated into the Latin alphabet.

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This last topic is a theme to which al-Bïrunï occasionally returns, for example, when discussing the variety of geographical names: " O f course, in all of this the Hindus are actuated by the desire to have as many names as possible, and to practice on them the rules and arts of their etymology, and they glory in the enormous copiousness of their language which they obtain by such means" (Sachau 1910, 299). Al-Bïrunï's disapproval is related to the ensuing difficulty of learning "the whole of the language" (pages 228-229): The Hindus and their like boast of this copiousness, whilst in reality it is one of the greatest faults of the language.

Burnell 1875); but a grammarian Indra(gomin), probably much later than Pänini, is known only by name. The confusion may be partly due to traditions which connect the god Indra with the origin of grammar (cf. page 136 of this volume and Patañjali's Introduction to the Mahäbhäsya, quoted in Staal 1969, 501-502). 7 "Speech indeed spoke formerly without manifestation (avyäkrta). The gods said to Indra: 'do manifest this speech for us'... Indra approaching it from the middle made it manifest (avyakarot).

Aklujkar 1969, 549, n. ] 17 The Method of Learning in the West The sloka portion was composed by Bhartrhari, while the commentar/ portion is attributed to Dharmapala, teacher of the Sastra. This book fathoms the deep secrets of heaven and earth, and treats of the philosophy of man (lit. 'the essential beauty of the human principles'). A person who has studied so far as this (book), is said to have mastered grammatical science, and may be compared to one who has learnt the Nine Classics and all the other authors of China.

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