A Tajik Persian Reference Grammar by John R. Perry

By John R. Perry

This is often the 1st entire reference grammar of Tajik, the Persian of significant Asia, to seem in English. It describes the fashionable literary language, with examples of colloquial and dialect utilization, from the early Soviet interval (1920s) up till Tajikistan's independence after 2001. Grammatical examples, taken from numerous literary assets, are given in either the Cyrillic and Perso-Arabic scripts. entire verb paradigms, a grammatical index, and parallel word-indexes in either writing platforms make it effortless to discover specific issues. crucial for the Iranologist and comparative linguist, for the the coed or instructor of Tajik Persian, and a important complement in case you paintings with Persian of Iran or Afghanistan. With broad indexes.

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U/ (orthographically у j - ; unstable) is close to the cardinal vowel and Eng. pull or pool (cf. 1; and see Lowering, below). Long and short vowels, or unstressed open syllables (where the vowel is reduced in length and quality), can be distinguished by the PersoArabic spelling, but not by the Cyrillic: буд jj_> /bu:d/ 'was', шуд ^ll/sud/ 'became'; хунин ^J»j-^/xu:nin/ 'bloody', чунин 18 CHAPTER ONE 'such'; муздур j j j > /muzduir/ (

2 Vowels (J): Stable and Unstable According to the canons of Modern Literary Tajik as established in the 1930s, there are six vowel phonemes in standard Tajik Persian, articulated as follows (those boxed are the so-called "unstable" vowels; see below). FIG. 2 TAJIK VOWELS Front Central Back Mid e ü о Low Ia I In both Standard Persian (SP) and Tajik the eight-vowel inventory of Middle and Early New Persian has been reduced to six, but in quite different ways. , non-Arabic, vowels, as in CP ser j : - 'lion' and röz jjj 'day') collapsed with the long high vowels /i:7 and /u:/ (as in sir j j л.

The early drafts of the Latin alphabet contained only lower-case letters, the modernist argument being that capitals were superfluous; in this form a range of PHONOLOGY AND ORTHOGRAPHY 35 Tajik publications was printed during 1926-29. Lower-case b took the form of a smaller upper-case В in the majority of charts and publications. Four diacritics were used (/-macron for terminal stressed /i/, later carried into Cyrillic; slashed z for /i/, cedillas under с for /j/ and under s for /S/), and one new character (q for /g/, as in the Turkic alphabets).

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