By Leslie A. Schuster
During this learn of the existence and paintings of Saint-Nazaire's shipbuilding employees within the 30 years ahead of global warfare I, Schuster exhibits that the results of commercial construction for staff differed sharply in line with their assets and reports. She info the competing identities and divergent values maintained by way of shipbuilding employees, demonstrating that they have been fostered by way of the interplay among kingdom courses, commercial construction, and the traditions pursued within the neighborhood realm. 3rd Republic financial rules for shipbuilding promoted unemployment and employee dependence on kingdom officers over union leaders, and the asymmetric software of capitalist tools of creation intended a number of office stories that extra undercut organization.
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Additional info for A Workforce Divided: Community, Labor, and the State in Saint-Nazaire's Shipbuilding Industry, 1880-1910
Delumeau (Toulouse: Privat, 1969), 464. 5. " Language, Culture and Identity in Brittany (London: Routledge, 1989), 4; Gras, "Les Disparites Economiques," 339; Leguen, "D'une Revolution Manquee," 468469; Michel Lagree, Religion et Cultures en Bretagne (1850-1950) (Paris: Fayard, 1992), 215. 6. Leguen, "D'une Revolution Manquee," 464. 7. Gustave Flaubert and Maxime du Camp, Par les Champs et Par les Greves, edited by Adrianne J. Tooke (Geneva: Droz, 1987), 25-26. " 8. Quoted in Flaubert and du Camp, Par les Champs, 26.
The majority of citywide celebrations and festivals focused on shipbuilding and maritime hallmarks, such as the annual Great Maritime Week. Organized, sponsored, or funded by the shipyards, these events came to impose a notion of community identity fashioned by the shipyards and by business leaders. Occurring several times a year, these celebrations included port inaugurations, ship launchings, and receptions for the crew and officers of foreign vessels. They attracted thousands of participants and may have been the only occasions when workers and bourgeoisie gathered for the same event, though festival planners took care to segregate the two classes with different activities.
Instead, many came to favor labor peace, affiliating with municipal and state officials to lobby for funding for their shipyards. Unemployment also furthered shop floor discipline. As shipbuilding's workforce suffered the ravages of frequent layoffs, employers discovered in irregular production a valuable tool for discipline and for strengthening their hand in labor relations. This paradox—legislation that promoted expansion and modernization yet impeded consistent development—occurred because maritime programs became subsumed to changeable government policy on the state's role in economic development.