By Joe W. Trotter, Earl Lewis, Tera W. Hunter
From the early years of the African slave alternate to the United States, blacks have lived and laboured in city environments. but the transformation of rural blacks right into a predominantly city humans is a comparatively contemporary phenomenon - merely in the course of global struggle One did African americans flow into towns in huge numbers, and in basic terms in the course of international battle did extra blacks dwell in towns than within the geographical region. via the early Nineteen Seventies, blacks had not just made the transition from rural to city settings, yet have been nearly flippantly disbursed among the towns of the North and the West at the one hand and the South at the different. of their quest for complete citizenship rights, financial democracy, and free up from an oppressive rural previous, black southerners grew to become to city migration and employment within the nation's business region as a brand new 'Promised Land' or 'Flight from Egypt'. with the intention to light up those alterations in African American city lifestyles, this ebook brings jointly city heritage; modern social, cultural, and coverage examine; and comparative views on race, ethnicity, and nationality inside and throughout nationwide boundaries.
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Additional resources for African American Urban Experience: Perspectives from the Colonial Period to the Present
34 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 AFRI CAN AMERI CAN URBAN EXPERIEN C E Smithsoni an Institution Press, 1973 ). I th ank Anthony Hill tor bringing thi s letter to my attention and to r alerti ng me to the tact that it was not written by Attucks. Alth ou gh more th an 5,000 African Amer icans ser ved in the Co nti nental Army and th e sout hern colo nies wh ere slaveholding was largest, refused to enlist black tro op s. See Horton and Horton , In Hope of Liberty. Letter "in beh alf of o ur fellow slaves in th is Province and by order of thei r committee," April 20 , 1773, New York Historical Society.
So central was labor to the existence of slavery that recent studies have ignored the obvious, focusing instead on current popular themes of slaves' social organization, domestic arrangements, religious beliefs, music, cuisine, and language in analyzing the congealing of a distinctive African American culture. The quest for this culture has led into the quarters, family, and church, but seldom to the worksite. " Indeed, it seems that slave autonomy has replaced slave resistance as the domi nant motif in the current historiography of slavery.
Also see Kerb er, No Constitutional R ight to Be Ladies: VVllmen and the Obligations of Citize nship (N ew York: Hill and Wang , 1998). Gordon S. Wood , The R adicalism of the American R evolution (Ne w York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992 ); also see H enretta, The Evolution of American Society, 1700-1815: A n Interdisciplinary A nalysis (Lexington: D. C. He ath Co mpany, I973 ). Phyllis F. Field, The Politics of Race in New York (It haca: Corn ell University Press, 1982); Leonard P. Curry, The Free Black in Urban America 1800-1850 (C hicago : U niversity of Chicago Press, 1981 ); Paul Finkelman , " Prelude to the Fourteenth Amendment: Black Legal Rights in the Antebellum North," Rutgers Law jo urnal 17, 3 & 4 (Spring and Summer, 1986): 415 -482 .