By Hans P. Binswanger-Mkhize, Camille Bourguignon, Rogier J. E. van den Brink
Regardless of 250 years of land reform world wide, vital land inequalities stay, specifically in Latin the United States and southern Africa. whereas in those areas, there's close to consensus at the desire for redistribution, a lot controversy persists round the best way to redistribute land peacefully and legally, usually blocking off development on implementation. This publication specializes in the 'how' of land redistribution so that it will forge larger consensus between land reform practitioners and allow them to make higher offerings at the mechanisms of land reform.
Read Online or Download Agricultural Land Redistribution: Toward Greater Consensus (Agriculture and Rural Development Series) PDF
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Extra info for Agricultural Land Redistribution: Toward Greater Consensus (Agriculture and Rural Development Series)
In the communist ideology, which inspired several revolutions, land reform was the first step toward establishing a classless society. The second step, after redistributing land to the peasants, involved collectivizing farm production to achieve economies of scale. Collectivizations invariably failed to produce vibrant agricultural sectors, however, and subsequently were undone. In China, for instance, the Household Responsibility System replaced collective farming during the late 1970s (see chapter 4).
Under the Labor Tenants Act (1996) and the Extension of Security of Tenure Act (1997), those workers are entitled to stay on the farm and acquire a portion of it. In addition, workers are protected against unfair eviction under the Prevention of Illegal Eviction Act (1999). However, all these acts have been very poorly enforced. Ironically, land redistribution itself can lead to the eviction of farmworkers. Zimbabwe, for example, provided no special protection to former workers under its Fast Track Land Redistribution, and that resulted in widespread loss of employment and destitution.
However, half of the landowners in Brazil go to court to contest the valuation of the farm, and this makes the process much more costly. In addition, the organized land invasions have led to organized landowner resistance. Violent conflict on a significant scale has been the result (see chapters 10 and 11). Several other countries have attempted to use land expropriation at scale for the purpose of land redistribution, but they have done so with less success than Brazil. Mexico tried to do it, but it took the government more than 70 years to redistribute 100 million hectares—or half of its agricultural area.