By F.B. de Walle, J. Sevenster
In this research, an outline is gifted of agricultural regulations on manure and minerals, with regards to the Nitrate Directive to treatment over the top floor- and groundwater infection from in depth agricultural practices. Six international locations belonging to the ecu Union have been studied: the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany and the uk. The rules and their felony incorporation have been regarding agricultural and environmental stipulations in each one state. moreover, a listing used to be made from agricultural mineral poli cies within the usa and Canada. stipulations for cattle farming in North the United States vary significantly from these in Europe, yet their strategies shed a special gentle on eu rules. study has proven that there are nonetheless very enormous mineral surpluses in lots of nations and areas. In either the Netherlands and within the Flemish a part of Belgium, present difficulties as a result of very excessive degrees of manure construction are structural instead of neighborhood and can't simply be solved by means of shipping of manure to different areas. To a lesser quantity. Germany, Denmark and comparatively small elements of France (Brittany) and the uk, nonetheless exceed the norms for an equilibrium fertilization. In Denmark, latest difficulties can most likely be solved in the latest legislative framework. The Netherlands, Flanders. a number of German Lander (Nordrhein-Westfalen and Schleswig-Holstein) and Brittany.
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Extra resources for Agriculture and the Environment: Minerals, Manure and Measures
Until now, the Netherlands have utilized 'application standards': maximum permissible quantities of phosphate in manure, which may be applied to agricultural land. The application standard for phosphate in manure and other organic fertilisers for grassland for 1996 is lowered from 150 to 135 kg/ha per year. 5 LU/ha. It is based on 'acceptable losses' of both Nand P and applies to manure and inorganic fertilizer, even though phosphate in fertilizer will not be subject to levies until 2000. 11 ).
When the Policy Memorandum was worked out into concrete measures. problems became apparent: the change-over to the new accounting system would take more time, manure reprocessing developments were behind schedule and the study showed that the gap between environmentally acceptable losses and losses that occur with good agricultural practice. could not be bridged. This meant that the policy goal of an equilibrium between input and output in 2000 was unrealistic. A new policy document (Policy Document on Manure and Ammonia) was presented to the Second Chamber in October 1995.
A decisloll was made to implement the new policies in three stages. A gradual change process was envisioned. to give farmers a chance to adjust to new environmental demands. that would be different for each phase. Each of the three pha ses had a distinct objective: 32 Phase 1 (1987-1990): Stabilization The goal of the initial phase was the stabilization of manure production and utilization at a level where all manure produced could be applied nationally, to prevent a nationwide manure surplus. The decision was made that in phases 1 and 2 the production and application of manure would be controlled by phosphate regulation, in contrast to the other EU countries.