By Laurie Bauer
Книга An advent to overseas types of English An advent to overseas different types of English Книги Иностранные языки Автор: Laurie Bauer Год издания: 2003 Формат: pdf Издат.:Edinburgh college Press Страниц: a hundred and sixty Размер: 1,7 ISBN: 0748613382 Язык: Английский0 (голосов: zero) Оценка:Covering sorts of English spoken in Britain, the u.s., Canada, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and the Falkland Islands, this booklet indicates how the most important nationwide types of English have constructed and why comparable reasons have given upward thrust to varied results in numerous elements of the realm.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to International Varieties of English
In much of Wales it was the language which was imposed (though there was also some movement of population). 3) arise from contamination from the Irish language, which is typically the situation in places where English is a second language. 3. We might, therefore, see all these varieties as belonging to the outer circle. At the same time, English has been established in these countries for so long, and has been so clearly inﬂuenced by the language of England, that these countries have varieties of English which behave more like inner circle varieties than like outer circle varieties.
Not, of course, in every case: sometimes familiar words are used for the new plants, and such cases will be discussed below. FAUNA Animals are treated in much the same way as plants, with the same range of possibilities for naming them. 3. 4 Some borrowed words for artefacts and cultural practices CULTURAL ARTEFACTS AND PRACTICES OF THE ABORIGINAL PEOPLES Just as unknown as the ﬂora and fauna that are met in the colonial situation are the cultural practices of the local peoples and the physical objects used in them.
Let us begin with Scotland. Until the Highland Clearances, the people in the Highlands of Scotland were mainly Gaelic-speaking. Scottish Gaelic has been retreating in the face of some form of English ever since then, and is now mainly spoken in the Hebrides, and even there alongside English. Although Gaelic was once spoken in parts of the Lowlands as well, the people in most of the Lowlands of Scotland have spoken a Germanic language since at least the seventh century. Originally this Germanic language was used throughout Northumbria (the land between the Humber and the Firth of Forth), but before the Norman Conquest the northern part of Northumbria, as far south as the Tweed, had become part of Scotland, and this language became a dominant one in Scotland.